Nak Ambil Tak Ambil Vaksin COVID 19?

Oleh Infomedikini

Pada 17/02/21


Kita telahpun mengharungi pandemik global COVID-19 lebih daripada setahun lamanya.


Dalam tempoh tersebut ada pihak yang berjaya mengelak daripada mendapat jangkitan dan ada yang tidak.


Simptom


Bagi yang dijangkiti mereka akan sama ada menunjukkan gejala atau bebas gejala.


Dalam kata lain individu yang tidak pernah mengalami gejala tidak bermakna dia tidak pernah dijangkiti.


Antibodi


Kita boleh menyemak sama ada pernah dijangkiti atau tidak dengan melakukan ujian pengesanan antibodi.


Ini berdasarkan badan akan menghasilkan antibodi dan kepekatannya boleh diukur di makmal.


Antibodi yang dijana susulan infeksi sepatutnya menjadikan seseorang itu lali terhadap jangkitan seterusnya.


Vaksin


Makanya sekiranya seseorang sudah ada antibodi atau pernah dijangkiti perlukah baginya mendapatkan suntikan vaksin COVID-19?


Sebatang jarum dan sebotol cecair

Sejarum jer


Dalam konteks pandemik yang menular seantero bumi dan ketandusan pengalaman dalam mendepaninya, pertanyaan sebegini otomatik terarah kepada World Health Organization (WHO).


Menurut WHO, seseorang yang telah dijangkiti akan menjana sejumlah antibodi dan antibodi tersebut mampu mengurangkan impak jangkitan.


Pun begitu kuantiti antibodi yang dihasilkan mungkin tidak cukup banyak, tidak cukup berkuasa atau setelah masa berlalu ia mengalami kemerosotan ke tahap tidak dapat menghalang jangkitan yang berulang.


Bila tiada jaminan yang infeksi tidak akan berulang, pendirian WHO adalah dirujuk: iaitu "pelalian masih juga diperlukan".

Last-Modified: Thursday, 4 March 2021 02:43:20 GMT

Ulasan




Bahasa Malaysia

logo Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia

Solidariti, Solidariti, Solidariti

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Graf kumulatif mingguan Covid-19 global

Graf di atas adalah kes kumulatif mingguan COVID-19 global.

Musim panas yang baru berlalu gagal dimanfaatkan untuk melandaikan graf berkenaan.

Graf kumulatif mingguan bagi Brazil

graf kumulatif mingguan bagi India

Pun begitu India yang berada di tangga ke-2 dan Brazil di tangga ke-3 bagi jumlah kes positif global telah menampakkan perkembangan positif iaitu bergerak melepasi puncak tertinggi dan terus bergerak secara menurun.

Namun dalam masa yang sama, AS dan Eropah yang baru menghabiskan musim panas tanpa CMO/PKP tidak berkongsi perkembangan positif seperti mana yang dicapai di India dan Brazil sebaliknya graf mereka (AS dan Eropah) bergerak ke atas secara eksponen.

Graf kumulatif mingguan Eropah

Respons WHO berhubung peningkatan kes positif di Eropah adalah: "jangan putus asa, teruskan usaha kesihatan awam dan kekalkan "solidariti" × 3.

Halaman Utama: home
Vaksin dan picagari

Penawar COVID-19 Masih Didambakan

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Dalam tempoh 6 bulan selepas ujikaji terapeutik terbesar di dunia iaitu Solidarity Therapeutics Trial bermula, ia telah berjaya menghasilkan bukti-bukti konklusif tentang keberkesanan ubat-ubatan bagi merawat COVID-19.

Keputusan interim daripada Solidarity Therapeutics Trial kelolaan WHO itu telah menunjukkan bahawa ubat-ubat berikut: iaitu remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir dan interferon sama ada memilki sedikit saja keberkesanan atau tiada kesan langsung ke atas mortaliti 28 hari atau paras kesembuhan pesakit.

Kajian di 30 buah negara itu adalah bertujuan bagi melihat keberkesanan beberapa jenis rawatan terhadap aspek-aspek seperti mortaliti keseluruhan, bila prosedur ventilasi bermula dan jangka masa pesakit berada di hospital.

Progres yang dicapai oleh Solidarity Therapeutics Trial menunjukkan kajian antarabangsa waima dalam situasi pandemik bukanlah suatu yang mustahil untuk dilaksanakan

Seterusnya platform berskala global seperti Solidarity Trial adalah bersedia untuk menilai secara pantas mana-mana rawatan-rawatan baru yang berpotensi di 500 buah hospital yang mengambil bahagian.

Terbaru, beberapa lagi ubat antiviral, immunomodulators dan antibodi monoklonal anti-SARS COV-2 sedang dipertimbangkan untuk dinilai.

Halaman Utama: home
Jumlah kes bagi Sabah dan Malaysia

Sabah Terus Mencatatkan Kes Positif Harian Tertinggi

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Negeri Sabah terus mencatatkan jumlah kes positif tertinggi iaitu 927 kes (74.8 peratus) pada 26 Oktober, 2020. Jumlah ini melonjak berikutan kes positif di Penjara Kepayan iaitu 439 kes.

Daripada jumlah tersebut, 30 kes adalah daripada kluster baharu iaitu Kluster Kapor.

Jumlah keseluruhan kes positif di Sabah setakat 26 Oktober, 2020 adalah sebanyak 12,745.

berikutan dengan itu lebih banyak pengesanan kes secara aktif bakal dijalankan di negeri Sabah. Selain itu, mobilisasi petugas kesihatan dilaksanakan bagi membantu usaha saringan di lapangan dan juga rawatan perubatan.

Aspek logistik dan penghantaran sampel juga telah ditambah baik bagi membolehkan keputusan ujian RTK-Ag dan RT-PCR dapat diperoleh pada kadar lebih cepat.

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Termometer inframerah

Kesan Negatif Penggunaan Termometer Inframerah

4 Ogos, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Termometer inframerah tanpa sentuh bukanlah alat penembak dan tidak memancarkan radiasi. Ia direkabentuk untuk mengesan dan menyerap isyarat sinaran inframerah dari permukaan kulit yang diubah menjadi isyarat elektrik.

Litar elektronik di dalam termometer ini memproses isyarat elektrik tersebut untukmenentukan suhu tubuh manusia yang diukur dan memaparkannya di skrin paparan. Oleh kerana termometer inframerah tidak memancarkan radiasi berbahaya, ianya selamat untuk digunakan.

Termometer berjenama
Contoh termometer infrared

Terdapat juga termometer inframerah yang menggunakan laser untuk membantu penentuan titik (spot) arah di mana suhu hendak diukur. Laser yang digunakan adalah pada kadar 630 – 670 nm yang mengeluarkan tenaga kurang dari 1 mW cm2, iaitu lebih rendah dari komponen inframerah dari sinaran cahaya matahari.

Halaman Utama: home

English

Ubat-ubatan jenis NSAIDs

NSAIDs may cause rare kidney problems in unborn babies

26 Ogos, 2020

Baca seterusnya

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) around 20 weeks or later in pregnancy may cause rare but serious kidney problems in an unborn baby.

This can lead to low levels of amniotic fluid surrounding the baby and possible complications.

NSAIDs are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fevers. They include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.

After around 20 weeks of pregnancy, the unborn babies’ kidneys produce most of the amniotic fluid, so kidney problems can lead to low levels of this fluid.

Amniotic fluid provides a protective cushion and helps the unborn babies’ lungs, digestive system, and muscles develop.

Although this safety concern is well known among certain medical specialties, we wanted to communicate our recommendations more widely to educate other health care professionals and pregnant women.

This issue affects all NSAIDs that are available by prescription and those that can be bought over-the-counter (OTC) without a prescription - CDC.

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Vaksin dalam botolnya

Vaccine: Progress on COVAX

26 Ogos, 2020

Baca seterusnya

At present there are nine vaccines that are part of this dynamic portfolio; which is constantly being reviewed and optimised to ensure access to the best possible range of products.

Even now, discussions are ongoing with four more producers.

And a further nine vaccines are currently under evaluation for the longer term.

Investing in the COVAX Facility is the fastest way to end this pandemic and ensure a sustainable economic recovery.

Through the allocation framework, COVAX will ensure that low-, middle- and high-income countries all receive the vaccine in a timely way as soon as there is supply of a safe and effective vaccine.

The success of the COVAX Facility hinges not only on countries signing up to it, but also filling key funding gaps for both the research and development work and to support lower-income economies within the facility.

A number of vaccines are now in the final stage of clinical trials and we all hope we will have multiple successful candidates that are both safe and effective.

Our only way out of this pandemic is together.

Halaman Utama: home
Virus dilihat bawah elektron mikroskop

COVID-19: Airborne transmission

26 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”). WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.

Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.

To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission.

Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE). These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context.

Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.

Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice, in restaurants or in fitness classes. In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out.

However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e.g., superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.

Halaman Utama: home
Pakai pelitup muka

Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19

21 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or raises their voice (e.g., while shouting, chanting, or singing). These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Recent studies show that a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (are “asymptomatic”) and that even those who eventually develop symptoms (are “pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.

To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
Why it is important to wear a cloth face covering
Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others. Wearing a cloth face covering will help protect people around you, including those at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and workers who frequently come into close contact with other people (e.g., in stores and restaurants).

Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings. The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.

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Kuiz Baru

INFOMEDIKINII

Kuiz-24


Imej di atas adalah sebahagian daripada Sistem Solar. Kenyataan yang benar mengenai sistem ini adalah:






Kemaskini: 20 Oktober, 2020

Kuiz-23

Sekiranya butang A, B dan C diklik sekali atau berulang-ulang kali, anda akan lihat susunan asal angka-angka itu bertukar kepada susunan yang baru dan tertentu.









Adapun kenyataan yang betul bagi setiap susunan-susunan baru itu adalah:





Kemaskini: 20 Oktober, 2020

Kuiz-22
R-naught

Rnaught adalah jumlah yang dijangkiti oleh individu terjangkit


R-naught adalah bilangan individu-individu yang bakal dijangkiti oleh satu kes positif. Kenyataan yang benar tentang R-naught adalah:





Kemaskini: Rabu, 13 Januari 2021 08:04:00 GMT

Kuiz-21

S1 S2 S3 S4 S4 S1 Maaf, browser anda tidak menyokong SVG dalam talian


Imej di atas adalah fonokardiogram bunyi jantung yang dianimasikan (muat turun semula sekiranya animasi telah terhenti). Soalannya ialah apakah yang menghasilkan bunyi jantung?





Kemaskini: Ahad, 17 Januari 2021

Kuiz-20

Karbon monoksida adalah gas yang mencemarkan udara yang kebanyakannya dihasilkan oleh kenderaan, perkilangan dan pembakaran terbuka. Formula kimia bagi gas ini adalah:





Kemaskini: Ahad 17 Januari, 2021

Kuiz-19

Gas Racun

Gas karbon monoksida boleh menyebabkan keracunan sekiranya di hidu. Fakta yang benar mengenai gas ini adalah:





Kemaskini: Ahad, 17 Januari, 2021

Statistik


COVID 19
Global (2 Februari):
103,418,646 kes(+)
Maut Sedunia:
2,238,286 kes
UK:
3,846,851 kes(+)
Brazil:
9,229,322 kes(+)
India:
10,766,245 kes(+)
Amerika:
26,317,623 kes(+)