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Pendekatan Alternatif - Tiada Rotan Akar Pun Berguna - Yang Sesuai Bagi Golongan Rentan Mengikut Keadaan

Meskipun sudah 50 juta individu dijangkiti oleh COVID-19 di serata dunia namun hanya seperatusan kecil saja yang mendapat komplikasi yang memudaratkan.

Justeru timbul pertanyaan ini: "apakah faktor-faktor yang membezakan mereka yang mendapat jangkitan ringan dan mereka yang mendapat jangkitan berat"?

Apa yang biasa diperdengarkan adalah bagi mereka yang dijangkiti oleh COVID-19, keadaan akan jadi lebih teruk dengan adanya faktor-faktor berikut:

1. Menghidapi penyakit tidak berjangkit seperti hipertensi, diabetes, serangan jantung, dislipidemia, strok dan penyakit ginjal kronik.
2. Usia awal dan usia lanjut.
3. Hamil.
4. Kekurang zat dan mineral.
5. Imunodefisiensi/kurang imuniti.
6. Masalah respiratori kronik
7. Terlantar di katil.

Senarai diatas bukanlah muktamad sebaliknya bakal berubah selari dengan pertambahan maklumat dan fakta saintifik mengenai wabak ini.

Satu dapatan baru adalah berkaitan dengan peranan imuniti bersilang dan ketahanan terhadap jangkitan COVID-19.

Faktor tersebut dikenal pasti daripada kajian retropektif yang dibuat ke atas data-data lebih daripada 2,000 pesakit yang dimasukkan ke sebuah hospital di AS susulan di jangkiti oleh SARS-COV-2 iaitu virus penyebab COVID-19.

Apa yang dijumpai adalah kadar kemasukan ke hospital bagi mereka yang tidak mendapat flu shot secara berkala adalah lebih tinggi berbanding mereka yang mendapat imunisasi berkala tersebut.


Suntikan ke bahu
Infomedikini
Lazimnya vaksin di suntik ke bahu

Satu lagi dapatan yang signifikan ialah kadar kemasukan ke ICU susulan dijangkiti COVID-19 bagi mereka yang tidak mendapat flu shot adalah lebih tinggi berbanding mereka yang mendapat vaksin influenza dalam tempoh satu tahun ke belakang.

Analisa di atas dirumuskan sebegini:

1. Vaksin influenza berkala seolah-olah mampu menghasilkan imuniti bersilang terhadap COVID-19.
2. Bahan adjuvan dalam vaksin tersebut bukan saja merangsang produktiviti antibodi yang lebih intensif terhadap influenza tetapi dirasakan mampu memberikan kesan sama terhadap lain-lain virus.
3. Flu shot seolah-seolah dapat mengurangkan sedikit risiko jangkitan COVID-19.
4. Sekiranya dijangkiti, vaksin influenza seolah-olah dapat mengurangkan kebarangkalian dimasukkan ke ICU.

Vaksin influenza adalah relatifnya masih murah, pun begitu ia hanyalah kurang lebih 60% berkesan terhadap jangkitan influenza yakni hanya 6 daripada 10 orang yang mengambilnya akan mendapat perlindungan. Makanya perlindungan bersilang yang mampu diberikan terhadap jangkitan lain-lain virus sepatutnya lebih rendah.

Namun dalam pada vaksin COVID-19 belum memasuki pasaran, imuniti bersilang bolehlah dilihat dalam konteks tiada rotan akar berguna.

Dan sementara menanti 'rotan' itu hadir, harapannya ialah golongan yang rentan dan berisiko tinggi akan mendapat 'akar' tanpa caj dan sekali gus beroleh serampang dua mata: iaitu mampu berdepan dengan influenza dan mampu mengharungi pandemik-19 ini.


Kemaskini: November 12, 2020

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Artikel Covid-19
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Solidariti, Solidariti, Solidariti

27 Oktober, 2020

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Graf di atas adalah kes kumulatif mingguan COVID-19 global.

Musim panas yang baru berlalu gagal dimanfaatkan untuk melandaikan graf berkenaan.





Pun begitu India yang berada di tangga ke-2 dan Brazil di tangga ke-3 bagi jumlah kes positif global telah menampakkan perkembangan positif iaitu bergerak melepasi puncak tertinggi dan terus bergerak secara menurun.

Namun dalam masa yang sama, AS dan Eropah yang baru menghabiskan musim panas tanpa CMO/PKP tidak berkongsi perkembangan positif seperti mana yang dicapai di India dan Brazil sebaliknya graf mereka (AS dan Eropah) bergerak ke atas secara eksponen.



Respons WHO berhubung peningkatan kes positif di Eropah adalah: "jangan putus asa, teruskan usaha kesihatan awam dan kekalkan "solidariti" × 3.

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Penawar COVID-19 Masih Didambakan

27 Oktober, 2020

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Dalam tempoh 6 bulan selepas ujikaji terapeutik terbesar di dunia iaitu Solidarity Therapeutics Trial bermula, ia telah berjaya menghasilkan bukti-bukti konklusif tentang keberkesanan ubat-ubatan bagi merawat COVID-19.

Keputusan interim daripada Solidarity Therapeutics Trial kelolaan WHO itu telah menunjukkan bahawa ubat-ubat berikut: iaitu remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir dan interferon sama ada memilki sedikit saja keberkesanan atau tiada kesan langsung ke atas mortaliti 28 hari atau paras kesembuhan pesakit.

Kajian di 30 buah negara itu adalah bertujuan bagi melihat keberkesanan beberapa jenis rawatan terhadap aspek-aspek seperti mortaliti keseluruhan, bila prosedur ventilasi bermula dan jangka masa pesakit berada di hospital.

Progres yang dicapai oleh Solidarity Therapeutics Trial menunjukkan kajian antarabangsa waima dalam situasi pandemik bukanlah suatu yang mustahil untuk dilaksanakan

Seterusnya platform berskala global seperti Solidarity Trial adalah bersedia untuk menilai secara pantas mana-mana rawatan-rawatan baru yang berpotensi di 500 buah hospital yang mengambil bahagian.

Terbaru, beberapa lagi ubat antiviral, immunomodulators dan antibodi monoklonal anti-SARS COV-2 sedang dipertimbangkan untuk dinilai.

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Sabah Terus Mencatatkan Kes Positif Harian Tertinggi

27 Oktober, 2020

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Negeri Sabah terus mencatatkan jumlah kes positif tertinggi iaitu 927 kes (74.8 peratus) pada 26 Oktober, 2020. Jumlah ini melonjak berikutan kes positif di Penjara Kepayan iaitu 439 kes.

Daripada jumlah tersebut, 30 kes adalah daripada kluster baharu iaitu Kluster Kapor.

Jumlah keseluruhan kes positif di Sabah setakat 26 Oktober, 2020 adalah sebanyak 12,745.

berikutan dengan itu lebih banyak pengesanan kes secara aktif bakal dijalankan di negeri Sabah. Selain itu, mobilisasi petugas kesihatan dilaksanakan bagi membantu usaha saringan di lapangan dan juga rawatan perubatan.

Aspek logistik dan penghantaran sampel juga telah ditambah baik bagi membolehkan keputusan ujian RTK-Ag dan RT-PCR dapat diperoleh pada kadar lebih cepat.

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Kesan Negatif Penggunaan Termometer Inframerah

4 Ogos, 2020

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Termometer inframerah tanpa sentuh bukanlah alat penembak dan tidak memancarkan radiasi. Ia direkabentuk untuk mengesan dan menyerap isyarat sinaran inframerah dari permukaan kulit yang diubah menjadi isyarat elektrik.

Litar elektronik di dalam termometer ini memproses isyarat elektrik tersebut untukmenentukan suhu tubuh manusia yang diukur dan memaparkannya di skrin paparan. Oleh kerana termometer inframerah tidak memancarkan radiasi berbahaya, ianya selamat untuk digunakan.

Contoh termometer infrared

Terdapat juga termometer inframerah yang menggunakan laser untuk membantu penentuan titik (spot) arah di mana suhu hendak diukur. Laser yang digunakan adalah pada kadar 630 – 670 nm yang mengeluarkan tenaga kurang dari 1 mW cm2, iaitu lebih rendah dari komponen inframerah dari sinaran cahaya matahari.

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English
Pokok-pokok tembakau

Plant-based vaccine is cheaper than animal-based vaccines?

November 10, 2020

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The emergence of COVID-19 has led to a global emergency that demands the development of new biologics, especially vaccines, to counteract against this threat. In this scenario, a plant-made vaccine is a viable approach to rapidly respond to this need. The current expression technologies offer relevant paths for developing anti-COVID-19 vaccines.

VLPs constitute an attractive approach for the development of efficient and safe vaccines, which is associated with high immunogenicity, preservation of the antigenic determinants, and lack of replicative capacity. Thus, VLPs based on the main SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins is an attractive approach for vaccine development against coronavirus infections.

The transient expression systems based on deconstructed viral vectors and N. benthamiana as host will allow for immediate exploitation of plants as efficient biofactories of injectable vaccine candidates, which are expected to be implemented and entered into clinical trials in a year.

The development of vaccines based on transplastomic lines or edible plant species transformed at the nuclear level and intended to result in oral vaccines (especially boosting agents to provide mucosal immunity) are considered long term goals.

However, they have special importance given their low cost and potential to serve as effective boosting agents, which could lead to attractive immune profiles characterized by proper humoral response in the mucosal compartments and long-lasting protection, especially for the elderly.

In parallel to these developments, the production of monoclonal antibodies in plants will provide another strategy to generate alternatives to the convalescent plasma transfusion, in which plant-made antibodies will constitute a low cost and safer intravenous treatment for critically ill patients.

Perhaps the main challenge envisioned for the development of COVID-19 plant-based vaccines will be, as is typical for all vaccines, testing their efficacy in large clinical trials to validate their safety while fulfilling the requirements of regulatory agencies.

The fact that there are precedents of a plant-made biopharmaceutical approved for human use and plant-made vaccines against influenza under clinical trials (with promising safety and efficacy) is encouraging. Therefore, plant-based vaccines have a realistic potential to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.

As the COVID-19 epidemic advances, the exploitation of plant-made vaccines is a promise to generate low cost, easy to administer, and safe/effective vaccines to fight against this pandemic. The next few months will be critical to envision the real potential of this technology.

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NSAIDs may cause rare kidney problems in unborn babies

26 Ogos, 2020

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) around 20 weeks or later in pregnancy may cause rare but serious kidney problems in an unborn baby.

This can lead to low levels of amniotic fluid surrounding the baby and possible complications.

NSAIDs are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fevers. They include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.

After around 20 weeks of pregnancy, the unborn babies’ kidneys produce most of the amniotic fluid, so kidney problems can lead to low levels of this fluid.

Amniotic fluid provides a protective cushion and helps the unborn babies’ lungs, digestive system, and muscles develop.

Although this safety concern is well known among certain medical specialties, we wanted to communicate our recommendations more widely to educate other health care professionals and pregnant women.

This issue affects all NSAIDs that are available by prescription and those that can be bought over-the-counter (OTC) without a prescription - CDC.

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Vaccine: Progress on COVAX

26 Ogos, 2020

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At present there are nine vaccines that are part of this dynamic portfolio; which is constantly being reviewed and optimised to ensure access to the best possible range of products.

Even now, discussions are ongoing with four more producers.

And a further nine vaccines are currently under evaluation for the longer term.

Investing in the COVAX Facility is the fastest way to end this pandemic and ensure a sustainable economic recovery.

Through the allocation framework, COVAX will ensure that low-, middle- and high-income countries all receive the vaccine in a timely way as soon as there is supply of a safe and effective vaccine.

The success of the COVAX Facility hinges not only on countries signing up to it, but also filling key funding gaps for both the research and development work and to support lower-income economies within the facility.

A number of vaccines are now in the final stage of clinical trials and we all hope we will have multiple successful candidates that are both safe and effective.

Our only way out of this pandemic is together.

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COVID-19: Airborne transmission

26 Julai, 2020

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Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”). WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.

Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.

To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission.

Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE). These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context.

Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.

Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice, in restaurants or in fitness classes. In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out.

However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e.g., superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.

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Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19

21 Julai, 2020

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COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or raises their voice (e.g., while shouting, chanting, or singing). These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Recent studies show that a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (are “asymptomatic”) and that even those who eventually develop symptoms (are “pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.

To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
Why it is important to wear a cloth face covering
Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others. Wearing a cloth face covering will help protect people around you, including those at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and workers who frequently come into close contact with other people (e.g., in stores and restaurants).

Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings. The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.

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Kuiz-24

Imej di atas adalah sebahagian daripada Sistem Solar. Kenyataan yang benar mengenai sistem ini adalah:


Bulan mengambil masa 30 hari untuk melengkapkan satu pusingan mengelilingi bumi


Arah putaran bulan adalah berlawanan dengan putaran bumi.


Bumi mengambil masa 365.256 hari bagi melengkapkan satu pusingan mengelilingi matahari


Bulan tidak berpusing pada paksinya


Kemaskini: 20 Oktober, 2020

Kuiz-23

Sekiranya butang A, B dan C diklik sekali atau berulang-ulang kali, anda akan lihat susunan asal angka-angka itu bertukar kepada susunan yang baru dan tertentu.

Adapun kenyataan yang betul bagi setiap susunan-susunan baru itu adalah:

A adalah susunan secara rawak


B adalah susunan angka ganjil


C adalah susunan menaik


Kemaskini: 20 Oktober, 2020

Kuiz-22
R-naught


R-naught adalah bilangan individu-individu yang bakal dijangkiti oleh satu kes positif. Kenyataan yang benar tentang R-naught adalah:

Pengurangan pergerakan massa mampu menurunkan R-naught


Pilihanraya tidak beri kesan kepada R-naught


Webinar mampu menaikkan bacaan R-naught


Kemaskini: 20 Oktober, 2020

Kuiz-21
S1 S2 S2 S3 S3 S4 S4 S1

Imej di atas adalah fonokardiogram bunyi jantung yang dianimasikan. Bunyi jantung dihasilkan oleh:

Kontraksi jantung

Arus elektrik jantung

Injap jantung

Kemaskini: 22 September, 2020

Kuiz-20
Karbon monoksida adalah gas yang mencemarkan udara yang kebanyakannya dihasilkan oleh kenderaan, perkilangan dan pembakaran terbuka. Formula kimia gas ini adalah:

CO

CO2

NO2

Kemaskini: 22 September, 2020

Kuiz-19
Gas Racun

Gas karbon monoksida boleh menyebabkan keracunan sekiranya di hidu. Fakta yang benar mengenai gas ini adalah:


Ia berwarna hitam

Baunya menusuk ke hidung

Daging jualan yang diproses dalam gas ini boleh mengekalkan warna merah untuk tempoh lebih lama

Kemaskini: 22 September, 2020

Kuiz terdahulu
Kalkulator
Kalkulator BMI Dan Berat Ideal - Dewasa

Tinggi >>>


Berat >>>


BMI (kg/m2):
Kategori:
Berat ideal (kg):

Infomedikini2u


Angka2 COVID-19
COVID 19
Global (November 26):
61,133,006 kes(+)
Maut Sedunia:
1,434,968 kes
Perancis:
2,235,537 kes(+)
Brazil:
6,204,220 kes(+)
India:
9,309,787 kes(+)
Amerika:
12,886,204 kes(+)

Covid-19 Malaysia: Angka-angka terkini setakat November 29, 2020.

COVID-19 Lokal
November 29, 2020
1) Kes Baru 2) Import 3) Lokal 4) Kumulatif 5) Kluster Baru 6) Sembuh harian 8) Jumlah Sembuh 7) Aktif 9) ICU 10) Ventilator 11) Kematian 12) Kematian (total) 13) Sabah 14) Selangor 15) Kedah 16) N Sembilan 17) WP Labuan 18) WP KL 19) WP Putrajaya 20) P Pinang 21) Melaka 22) Johor 23) Perak 24) Pahang 25) Sarawak 26) Terengganu 27) Kelantan 28) Perlis
1,309 1 1,038 64,485 ? 1,333 52,647 116 42 3 357 290 238 52 32 35 493 0 46 1 37 77 1 0 1 6 0

⬅Skrol ke kiri



Kedudukan COVID-19 lokal dan jiran tetangga (11 Oktober, 2020)

Brunei

Maut:3Total:146

Thailand

Maut:59Total:3,634

Malaysia

Maut:155Total:15,096

Singapore

Maut:27Total:57,866

Indonesia

Maut:11,765Total:328,952

Filipina

Maut:6,238Total:336,926
Peta Interaktif
Peta interaktif Covid-19 bagi Sabah, Labuan, Brunei, Sarawak dan Filipina setakat July 7, 2020
JALUR Covid-19: 5 Negara yang paling teruk terkesan setakat 7 September, 2020.

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