Persepsi Negatif Terhadap AstraZeneca Mampu Jejas Sasaran Imuniti Kelompok Global

Oleh Infomedikini


Persepsi negatif terhadap vaksin bakal mengurangkan kadar vaksinasi justeru ia perlu dikurangkan.


Berikut adalah perkara-perkara tentang vaksin ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 keluaran AstraZeneca yang boleh menimbulkan persoalan dari segi amalan murni dan kesinambungan genetik:


  1. Virus vektor jenis tersuai disuntik ke dalam tubuh manusia sebagai usaha mencegah jangkitan virus novel.
  2. Kod genetik virus berbahaya dipautkan ke dalam DNA virus vektor perlu memasuki nukleus sel penerima vaksin sebagai langkah perlu dalam penghasilan sejenis protin asing iaitu spike protein.
  3. Sel-sel klon daripada janin iaitu barisan sel-sel HEK-293 dibabitkan dalam proses penghasilan virus-virus vektor dan tuaian segmen-segmen mRNA COVID-19.
  4. Etanol adalah salah satu cecair eksipien dalam sebotol vaksin.

Jika perkara di atas dipandang ringan, keraguan terhadap vaksin COVID-19 AstraZeneca secara khususnya dan lain-lain vaksin secara amnya akan berputik dan mampu berkembang ke tahap menyekat sasaran imuniti kelompok.


Adenovirus sebagai vektor


Virus ini diternak di makmal dan diubahsuai genetiknya bagi tujuan menghasilkan vektor yang dapat melindungi dan membawa segmen mRNA COVID-19 ke dalam sel-sel penerima vaksin.


Struktur mRNA

Imej 1. Struktur skematik segmen mRNA. Sumber Curevac


Struktur DNA

Imej 2. Struktur skematik rerantai DNA. Kredit untuk Curevac


Virus ini dikhabarkan tidak menyebabkan jangkitan dan tidak menularkan jangkitan kepada manusia.


Kalau khabar berkenaan diyakini kebenarannya, anehnya, kenapa kaedah pembersihan bagi vaksin yang tumpah perlu menggunakan agen pencuci khas terhadap adenovirus atau pelupusan vaksin yang tidak habis dipakai harus dilaksanakan ikut 'SOP"?


Kefahaman biasa tentang keperluan sanitasi 'wajib' ialah apabila sesuatu permukaan itu telah dicemari oleh mikrob berjangkit. Justeru apakah vaksin ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 mengandungi mikrob yang boleh menyebabkan jangkitan?


×

Kaedah pelupusan
dan pembersihan

COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca contains genetically modified organisms (GMOs).


The active ingredient of the Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine is made from a modified adenovirus which causes the common cold in chimpanzees. This virus has been modified so that it cannot cause an infection. It is used to deliver the genetic code for the coronavirus spike protein.


Any unused vaccine or waste material should be disposed of in compliance with the local guidance for genetically modified organisms or biohazardous waste.


Spills should be disinfected using agents with activity against adenovirus.



Sel-sel janin


Sel-sel hidup diperlukan untuk membolehkan partikel adenovirus (virus vektor) menjalani proses multiplikasi dan seterusnya segmen mRNA COVID-19 dipautkan kepada DNA vektor menerusi kaedah kejuruteraan genetik.


Sel-sel hidup yang digunakan adalah sel-sel klon HEK-293. Selain sel-sel klon janin itu, apakah sel-sel haiwan lain tidak boleh digunakan?


×

Maklumat lanjut
tentang HEK-293

The manufacturing process for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine involves the production of a virus, the adenovirus, which carries the genetic material to the cells inside the body. To produce this virus in the laboratory, a “host” cell line is needed. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine uses a cell line called HEK-293 cells.


HEK-293 is the name given to a specific line of cells used in various scientific applications. The original cells were taken from the kidney of a legally aborted foetus in 1973. HEK-293 cells used nowadays are clones of those original cells, but are not themselves the cells of aborted babies.


The Department for Social Justice of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of England and Wales released a statement addressing the use of HEK-293 cells in the COVID-19 vaccine. They say that “one may in good conscience and for a grave reason receive a vaccine sourced in this way”, and “that one does not sin by receiving the vaccine”.


Other therapeutic products which use HEK-293 cells as a producer cell line include Ad5 based vaccines, such as Cansino’s COVID-19 vaccine, Adeno associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses as gene therapy vectors for various diseases. Many of these products are in clinical trials.



Transkripsi kod DNA berlangsung dalam nukleus sel dan bukan di luar nukleus


Mekanisma imuniti vaksin ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 keluaran Astrazeneca terhadap COVID 19 adalah menerusi penghasilan antibodi terhadap spike protein. Protein tersebut terletak pada permukaan partikel virus. Imej 3.


Struktur partikel COVID 19

Imej 3. Struktur-struktur COVID-19 termasuk spike protein yang menjadi sasaran sel-sel imuniti. Sumber imej daripada Vaccine Knowledge Project Oxford University


Sel-sel imun melihat spike protein sebagai antigen lalu menghasilkan antibodi bagi melawan COVID 19.


Protin dihasilkan daripada proses transkripsi dan translasi kod genetik

Imej 4. Cara sel hasilkan protin dipetik daripada Vaccine Knowledge Project Oxford University


Susun atur komponen spike protein ditentukan oleh kod genetik yang terkandung dalam mRNA COVID-19.


Makanya dengan memasukkan salinan kod ke dalam sel, sel tersebut dapat menghasilkan protein yang menyerupai spike protein.


Isunya ialah kod tersebut dipautkan kepada DNA virus vektor dan DNA ini perlu masuk ke nukleus sel untuk proses melepaskan mRNA.

Dikhabarkan DNA vektor dan mRNA yang memasuki nukleus sel akan dimusnahkan dalam waktu yang singkat.


×

Virus jadi
vektor bawa DNA

Viral vectored vaccines

Viral vectored vaccines work in a different way. The genetic information inside a viral vectored vaccine like ChAdOx1 is DNA rather than RNA. This DNA is a short linear piece of double stranded DNA which contains the viral genes along with the gene for the spike protein. The viral vector first infects the cell and then delivers this DNA to the cell nucleus. The cell can then transcribes the viral genes (DNA) into mRNA using the same RNA polymerase it uses for our own genes. After transcription, the mRNA gets tagged so it can leave the nucleus and be made into spike protein by the cell machinery.


In the Oxford vaccine, the viral gene that is required to replicate viral DNA has been removed. As viruses use a different process to human cells to replicate their DNA, the cell itself cannot replicate viral DNA either. This means the viral vector cannot replicate (make more viruses) or cause disease. Both the original viral DNA and the spike protein mRNA only last a few days before the cell removes them. Such design features alongside a cell’s natural DNA protection measures, prevents any possibility of viral DNA integrating with human DNA.



Lazimnya mana-mana pendekatan baru pasti terdedah kepada kejutan dan kekhilafan yang tidak dapat diduga pada awalnya. Dalam konteks ini apakah yang akan terjadi sekiranya DNA dan mRNA asing berada lebih lama dalam sel-sel?


Ethanol sebagai eksepien


Ada berbagai jenis bahan yang boleh dijadikan penstabil termasuk ethanol iaitu sejenis alkohol. Dalam kuantiti yang besar ia adalah racun yakni toksik terhadap organ-organ.


Meskipun kuantiti ethanol dalam sebotol vaksin adalah sedikit namun bila dikaitkan dengan racun dan toksin, secara tidak langsung timbul perasaan was-was terhadap keselamatan vaksin.


×

Ethanol sebagai
eksepien

PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

List of excipients:


  • L-Histidine
  • L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate
  • Magnesium chloride hexahydrate
  • Polysorbate 80 (E 433)
  • Ethanol
  • Sucrose
  • Sodium chloride
  • Disodium edetate (dihydrate)
  • Water for injections


Data lama memburukkan lagi persepsi terhadap vaksin AstraZeneca


Ibarat sudah jatuh ditimpa tangga, persepsi negatif yang tular sebelum ini dinegatifkan lagi oleh sidang media AstraZeneca yang memetik data-data yang bukan terkini hingga mengundang komen-komen negatif daripada banyak pihak:


"AstraZeneca vaccine is likely very good, but an independent review board was concerned about how the drugmaker presented data - Dr. Anthony Fauci"

Nila setitik rosak susu sebelanga


Pandemik COVID-19 belum reda dengan pendekatan sedia ada. Imuniti kelompok peringkat global diwar-warkan mampu mengawal wabak dengan lebih berkesan.


Namun di depan masih ada halangan. Persepsi negatif yang berlarutan dan menjangkiti lain-lain vaksin adalah penghalang untuk dunia kembali kepada norma-norma lama.


Last-Modified: Friday, 26 March 2021 20:56:34 GMT

Ulasan

Covid-19
Pandemik

⬅Tatal ke kiri

Statistik
COVID 19
Global (April 17):
140,729,539 kes(+)
Maut Sedunia:
2,839,716 kes
France:
5,321,176 kes(+)
Brazil:
13,900,091 kes(+)
India:
14,788,003 kes(+)
Amerika:
31,627,701 kes(+)
Bahasa Malaysia
Masjid di Jakarta

Indonesia Buat Ketetapan Tiada Mudik Lebaran Pada Tahun Ini

Friday, 16 April, 2021

Baca seterusnya

Jakarta, Kominfo - Satuan Tugas (Satgas) Penanganan Covid-19 menerbitkan Surat Edaran (SE) Nomor 13 Tahun 2021 tentang Peniadaan Mudik Hari Raya Idulfitri Tahun 1442 Hijriah dan Upaya Pengendalian Penyebaran Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Selama Bulan Suci Ramadan 1442 Hijriah.


Ketentuan yang tertuang dalam SE yang ditandatangani Ketua Satgas Doni Monardo pada tanggal 7 April 2021 ini berlaku mulai tanggal 6 hingga 17 Mei 2021.


“Surat Edaran ini berlaku efektif mulai tanggal 6 – 17 Mei 2021 dan akan ditinjau lebih lanjut sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan/atau dengan perkembangan terakhir di lapangan,” ujarnya dalam SE.


Ditegaskan Doni, pelanggaran terhadap SE ini akan dikenakan sanksi denda, sanksi sosial, kurungan dan/atau pidana sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan.


Penerbitan SE ini dilatarbelakangi adanya potensi peningkatan mobilitas masyarakat pada bulan suci Ramadan dan Hari Raya Idulfitri tahun ini baik untuk kegiatan keagamaan, keluarga, maupun pariwisata yang memiliki risiko terhadap peningkatan laju penularan Covid-19



Halaman Utama
logo Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia

Solidariti, Solidariti, Solidariti

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Graf kumulatif mingguan Covid-19 global


Graf di atas adalah kes kumulatif mingguan COVID-19 global.


Musim panas yang baru berlalu gagal dimanfaatkan untuk melandaikan graf berkenaan.


Graf kumulatif mingguan bagi Brazil


graf kumulatif mingguan bagi India


Pun begitu India yang berada di tangga ke-2 dan Brazil di tangga ke-3 bagi jumlah kes positif global telah menampakkan perkembangan positif iaitu bergerak melepasi puncak tertinggi dan terus bergerak secara menurun.


Dalam masa yang sama, AS dan Eropah yang baru menghabiskan musim panas tanpa CMO/PKP tidak berkongsi perkembangan positif seperti mana yang dicapai di India dan Brazil sebaliknya graf mereka (AS dan Eropah) bergerak ke atas secara eksponen.


Graf kumulatif mingguan Eropah


Respons WHO berhubung peningkatan kes positif di Eropah adalah: "jangan putus asa, teruskan usaha kesihatan awam dan kekalkan "solidariti" × 3.


Halaman Utama
Vaksin dan picagari

Penawar COVID-19 Masih Didambakan

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Dalam tempoh 6 bulan selepas ujikaji terapeutik terbesar di dunia iaitu Solidarity Therapeutics Trial bermula, ia telah berjaya menghasilkan bukti-bukti konklusif tentang keberkesanan ubat-ubatan bagi merawat COVID-19.


Keputusan interim daripada Solidarity Therapeutics Trial kelolaan WHO itu telah menunjukkan bahawa ubat-ubat berikut: iaitu remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir dan interferon sama ada memilki sedikit saja keberkesanan atau tiada kesan langsung ke atas mortaliti 28 hari atau paras kesembuhan pesakit.


Kajian di 30 buah negara itu adalah bertujuan bagi melihat keberkesanan beberapa jenis rawatan terhadap aspek-aspek seperti mortaliti keseluruhan, bila prosedur ventilasi bermula dan jangka masa pesakit berada di hospital.


Progres yang dicapai oleh Solidarity Therapeutics Trial menunjukkan kajian antarabangsa waima dalam situasi pandemik bukanlah suatu yang mustahil untuk dilaksanakan


Seterusnya platform berskala global seperti Solidarity Trial adalah bersedia untuk menilai secara pantas mana-mana rawatan-rawatan baru yang berpotensi di 500 buah hospital yang mengambil bahagian.


Terbaru, beberapa lagi ubat antiviral, immunomodulators dan antibodi monoklonal anti-SARS COV-2 sedang dipertimbangkan untuk dinilai.


Halaman Utama
Termometer inframerah

Kesan Negatif Penggunaan Termometer Inframerah

4 Ogos, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Termometer inframerah tanpa sentuh bukanlah alat penembak dan tidak memancarkan radiasi. Ia direkabentuk untuk mengesan dan menyerap isyarat sinaran inframerah dari permukaan kulit yang diubah menjadi isyarat elektrik.


Litar elektronik di dalam termometer ini memproses isyarat elektrik tersebut untukmenentukan suhu tubuh manusia yang diukur dan memaparkannya di skrin paparan. Oleh kerana termometer inframerah tidak memancarkan radiasi berbahaya, ianya selamat untuk digunakan.


Termometer berjenama

English

No school clusters detected in Jakarta this year

Thursday, 22 April 2021

Baca seterusnya

Jakarta Education Agency Head Nahdiana said there has been no report of Covid-19 transmission case during the back-to-school trial in 85 schools. The trial was started as teachers and administrative staffs in those education units had received the Covid-19 vaccines


“There is no report [of positive cases] until now,” said Nahdiana in response to the question shot by the Chairman of the Jakarta Legislative Council (DPRD) Commission E, Iman Satria, in today’s hearing, April 21, 2021.


Nahdiana’s statement cast Iman in relief. Iman was happy to hear that the trial of the so-called face-to-face school is running smoothly and no confirmed cases among students and teachers are found thus far.


Iman hoped that the condition could be maintained until the preparation of the simultaneous school reopening across the capital. “Hopefully, this can be maintained,” he said.


The Jakarta provincial government decided to hold the trial for on-site studies in 85 schools starting Wednesday, April 7. Deputy Governor Ahmad Riza Patria said on April 7 that he would open more schools if the test run is successful-Tempo.Com


Halaman Utama
Sinovac vaccine

China Sinovac vaccine is 100% effective against severe COVID-19 infection?

Friday, 16 April 2021

Baca seterusnya

Bloomberg spoke to two experts about the vaccines, zeroing in on the Sinovac Biotech Ltd. shot, which has been the focus of a crisis in confidence after it posted efficacy levels of just above 50% in a final stage trial in Brazil -- the minimum required by leading global drug regulators.


According to Fiona Russell from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne and Paul Griffin, a professor from the University of Queensland in Brisbane:


1. For very mild disease, requiring no treatment the efficacy of Sinovac is about 50%.
2. For infections requiring some medical intervention, it’s about 84%.
3. For moderate-to-severe Covid cases, it’s 100%!


Conclusion: That’s what you expect from Covid vaccines -- higher efficacy against more severe infections and lower against milder ones. From what I can see, it looks like a very worthwhile vaccine.



Last-Modified: Friday, 16 April 2021 22:04:33 GMT


Halaman Utama
DNA repairs occurs at specific loci of the neuronal cell

Specific Neuronal Loci For Repairs of Damaged DNA Identified

Sunday, 28 March 2021

Baca seterusnya

Researchers at the 1National Institutes of Health (NIH) have discovered specific regions within the DNA of neurons that accumulate a certain type of damage (called single-strand breaks or SSBs).


Location of DNA repair inside the neuron cells

Imej 1. Sel-sel neuron berwarna jingga. DNA berwarna hijau dan proses pembaikan berwarna kuning.


This accumulation of SSBs appears to be unique to neurons, and it challenges what is generally understood about the cause of DNA damage and its potential implications in neurodegenerative diseases.


Because neurons require considerable amounts of oxygen to function properly, they are exposed to high levels of free radicals—toxic compounds that can damage DNA within cells.


Normally, this damage occurs randomly. However, in this study, damage within neurons was often found within specific regions of DNA called “enhancers” that control the activity of nearby genes.


Last-Modified: Sunday, 28 March 2021 22:04:33 GMT


Halaman Utama
Ubat-ubatan jenis NSAIDs

NSAIDs may cause rare kidney problems in unborn babies

26 Ogos, 2020

Baca seterusnya

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) around 20 weeks or later in pregnancy may cause rare but serious kidney problems in an unborn baby.


This can lead to low levels of amniotic fluid surrounding the baby and possible complications.


NSAIDs are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce fevers. They include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.


After around 20 weeks of pregnancy, the unborn babies’ kidneys produce most of the amniotic fluid, so kidney problems can lead to low levels of this fluid.


Amniotic fluid provides a protective cushion and helps the unborn babies’ lungs, digestive system, and muscles develop.


Although this safety concern is well known among certain medical specialties, we wanted to communicate our recommendations more widely to educate other health care professionals and pregnant women.


This issue affects all NSAIDs that are available by prescription and those that can be bought over-the-counter (OTC) without a prescription - CDC.


Halaman Utama: home
Virus dilihat bawah elektron mikroskop

COVID-19: Airborne transmission

26 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”). WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.


Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.


To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission.


Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE). These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context.


Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.


Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice, in restaurants or in fitness classes. In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out.


However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e.g., superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.


Halaman Utama: home
Pakai pelitup muka

Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19

21 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or raises their voice (e.g., while shouting, chanting, or singing). These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Recent studies show that a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (are “asymptomatic”) and that even those who eventually develop symptoms (are “pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.

To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.

Why it is important to wear a cloth face covering

Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others. Wearing a cloth face covering will help protect people around you, including those at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and workers who frequently come into close contact with other people (e.g., in stores and restaurants).

Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings. The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.

Halaman Utama: home
Kuiz Baru
Kuiz-27

Vaksin COVID-19

Location of DNA repair inside the neuron cells


Vaksin COVID-19 berguna dalam perkara-perkara berikut kecuali:






Last-Modified: Monday, 29 March 2021 21:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-26

mRNA


Imej mRNA
Sumber: Curevac


Berikut adalah penyataan yang salah mengenai vaksin mRNA COVID-19:






Last-Modified: Monday, 29 March 2021 21:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-25

Video di bawah ini adalah gambaran yang acap kali dipamerkan oleh layout semasa meluncuri laman sesawang.

Kenyataan yang betul tentang video tersebut adalah:





Last-Modified: Wednesday, 7 April 2021 23:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-24



Imej di atas adalah sebahagian daripada Sistem Solar. Kenyataan yang benar mengenai sistem ini adalah:






Kuiz-23

Sekiranya butang A, B dan C diklik sekali atau berulang-ulang kali, anda akan lihat susunan asal angka-angka itu bertukar kepada susunan yang baru dan tertentu.









Adapun kenyataan yang betul bagi setiap susunan-susunan baru itu adalah:





Kuiz-22

R-naught

R naught


R-naught adalah bilangan individu-individu yang bakal dijangkiti oleh satu kes positif. Kenyataan yang benar tentang R-naught adalah:





Last-Modified Friday, 5 March 2021 14:04:00 GMT

Diminati