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Tabung oksigen

Budak 4 tahun meninggal dunia akibat Covid-19 di Singapura

19 Julai 2022

Baca seterusnya

SEORANG budak perempuan empat tahun yang dijangkiti Covid-19 meninggal dunia, jelas Kementerian Kesihatan (MOH) Singapura.


Ini adalah kematian kedua yang berpunca daripada koronavirus yang melanda pesakit di bawah usia 12 tahun.


Menjawab pertanyaan media pada Selasa (19 Julai), MOH berkata budak itu meninggal kerana radang paru-paru pada Ahad dan dia tiada sejarah perubatan atau penyakit sebelum ini dan berada dalam keadaan baik sebelum jangkitan itu.


"Budak ini menampakkan tanda jangkitan pada bahagian atas saluran pernafasannya dan dia juga demam pada 15 Julai serta diuji positif Covid-19 menerusi ujian pantas antigen pada Ahad di klinik doktor umum," jelas MOH.


Dia diberi perubatan bagi tanda jangkitannya dan kekal sakit serta rebah lewat malam itu, kata MOH.


MOH berkata punca kematian kelak disahkan koroner negeri sebagai radang paru-paru Covid-19.


Pada 27 Jun lalu, MOH turut mendedahkan kematian budak lelaki berusia setahun setengah yang meninggal dunia kerana radang otak atau 'encephalitis', yang berpunca daripada Covid-19 dan dua lagi virus.


Dua lagi virus ini adalah virus struktur besar persis sel yang menyatukan sel lain di bahagian pernafasan dan enterovirus. Budak itu juga tidak mempunyai sebarang sejarah penyakit dan baik-baik sahaja sebelum ini.


"Kanak-kanak biasanya lebih berdaya bingkas pada jangkitan Covid-19 berbanding orang dewasa dan warga emas. Tidak mengambil kira faktor ini, jangkitan Covid-19 boleh menyebabkan penyakit teruk dalam kalangan kanak-kanak," kata MOH pada Selasa.


Ia menambah pihaknya, Penguasa Sains Kesihatan dan Jawatankuasa Pakar Tentang Vaksinasi Covid-19 sedang mengkaji keselamatan dan keberkesanan vaksin Covid-19 yang telah dirumuskan buat kanak-kanak kecil di bawah usia lima tahun.


Ini merupakan langkah yang diperkenal selepas Pentadbiran Makanan dan Ubat-Ubatan Amerika Syarikat memperluas kesahihan bagi vaksin Covid-19 Pfizer-BioNTech dan Moderna untuk digunakan bagi kanak-kanak sekecil enam bulan awal tahun ini.


Vaksin Moderna sesuai digunakan bagi kanak-kanak berusia enam bulan hingga lima tahun, manakala vaksin Pfizer pula sesuai buat kanak-kanak enam bulan hingga empat tahun.


Sumber: Berita Harian SG


Halaman Utama
Tabung oksigen

Waspada! Jangan Meremehkan Hepatitis Akut Misterius

12 Mei 2022

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SAMPIT, PROKALTENG.CO– Ketua DPRD Kabupaten Kotawaringin Timur (Kotim) Dra.Rinie mengingatkan agar pemerintah Kabupaten untuk bergerak cepat terkait pencegahan dan antisipasi penyakit Hepatitis Akut Misterius, karena penyakit tersebut sudah memakan korban jiwa pada pasien anak sebagian wilayah Indonesia.


“Pemerintah Kabupaten Kotim melalui intansi terkait harus meningkatkan kewaspadaan, sebab WHO sudah menetapkan meningkatnya kasus Hepatitis Akut itu sebagai kejadian luar biasa (KLB). Belajar dari pengalaman, jangan lagi meremehkan penyakit yang baru menyebar, apalagi kali ini sasarannya terhadap anak-anak,” kata Rinie, Rabu (11/5).


Menurutnya Dinas Kesehatan harus gencar melakukan sosialisasi secara masif kepada masyarakat terkait penyakit hepatitis akut misterius yang menular, hal itu untuk menekan penyebaran dengan melibatkan imbauan, dan pencegahan sampai ke wilayah pelosok di Kabupaten ini,


“Sosialisasi secara masif sangat penting dilakukan sampai ke masyarakat, dan materi yang disampaikan juga harus dibuat sejelas mungkin, kita tentu tidak ingin membuat panik masyarakat yang baru saja ingin terbebas dari pandemi Covid-19,” ujar Rinie.


Politisi Partai PDI Perjuangan ini juga meminta kepada masyarakat agar tidak perlu panik di dalam merespon kemunculan penyakit hepatitis akut misterius yang beredar saat ini dibeberapa wilayah Indonesia, dan masyarakat diminta untuk tetap waspada dengan menerapkan pola hidup sehat sehingga terhindar dari penyakit tersebut.


“Apa yang disampaikan oleh pemerintah betul kita nggak perlu panik, nggak perlu ketakutan, meskipun WHO sudah mengklasifikan sebagai sebuah kejadian luar biasa, tetapi kita juga perlu melakukan kewaspadaan dan kehati-hatian terhadap penyakit itu,” ucap Rinie


Sumber


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EURO 2020

EURO 2020 Budapest: Hungary catat sifar kes positif

4 Julai 2021

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EURO 2020 Budapest telah berlangsung selama 23 hari dengan stadium perlawanan dipenuhi oleh puluhan ribuan penonton.


Kes positif COVID-19 harian pada 3 Julai 2021 adalah sifar!


Angka COVID-19 Hungary pada 3 Julai 2021


Inilah pertama kali Hungary mencatatkan angka sifar dalam tempoh EURO 2020 berlangsung.


Halaman Utama
Tabung oksigen

Harga Isi Ulang Oksigen di Jakarta Naik Rp 3.000 - Rp 5.000 Per Tabung

2 Julai 2021

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JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - Harga isi ulang oksigen melonjak Rp 3.000 hingga Rp 5.000 per tabung berbagai ukuran di salah satu sentra penjualan di Setiabudi, Jakarta Selatan.


Kenaikan harga terjadi sejak dua minggu lalu, menyusul lonjakan kasus COVID-19 di Ibu Kota. "Lonjakan pembelian isi ulang oksigen ini terjadi sejak dua minggu lalu," kata pengelola depot pengisian oksigen Krisna Okta Wira di Setiabudi, Jakarta Selatan, Jumat (2/7/2021), seperti dikutip Antara.


Adapun ukuran yang paling banyak diisi ulang oksigen, lanjut dia, di antaranya tabung ukuran satu meter kubik yang kini dihargai Rp 18.000 sekali isi ulang atau naik Rp 3.000 dari harga sebelumnya Rp 15.000.


Rata-rata kenaikan untuk tabung lainnya, lanjut dia, hingga mencapai Rp 5.000 per tabung.


Untuk pengisian oksigen untuk tabung paling kecil berukuran 0,5 meter kubik dihargai Rp 10.000, tabung ukuran 1,5 meter kubik mencapai Rp 25.000.


Sedangkan pengisian oksigen untuk tabung ukuran dua meter kubik mencapai Rp 30.000 dan tiga meter kubik mencapai Rp 40.000.


"Rata-rata yang isi ulang itu warga biasa untuk kebutuhan di rumah tapi ada juga dari Puskesmas," imbuhnya. Menurut dia, pada hari biasa pembeli yang rutin mengisi ulang oksigen tidak lebih dari 100 orang per hari.


Namun, sejak dua minggu lalu jumlah pembeli melonjak menjadi sekitar 200 orang per hari.


Ini sumbernya


Halaman Utama
Calitan naso-farinks

Sedikit tentang komplikasi calitan hidung

Selasa, 29 Jun 2021

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Calitan naso-farinks dan oro-farinks dilakukan seperti dalam imej di atas bagi mengampil sampel dan seterusnya diuji sama ada sampel tadi mengandungi virus COVID-19 atau sebaliknya


Semenjak pandemik ini bermula, beratus-ratus juta kali calitan hidung dan kerongkong telah dilakukan di serata dunia dan ini adalah komplikasi yang direkodkan.


1. Perdarahan hidung (epistaksis).
2. Alat calitan terpatah dan tertinggal di dalam hidung.
3. Kecederaan yang menjurus kepada kebocoran cecair serebrospinal.
4. Dislokasi sendi temporomandibular


Memandangkan banyak ujian calitan dilakukan setiap hari di serata dunia, insiden tentunya akan bertambah. Namum secara umumnya risiko komplikasi calitan orofarinks dan nasofarinks adalah amat rendah.


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Vaksin COVID-19

COVID-19: Makna vaksinasi penuh

Selasa, 8 Jun 2021

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Vaksinasi adalah proses memasukkan vaksin ke dalam tubuh.


Vaksin adalah bahan yang apabila dimasukkan ke dalam tubuh akan berupaya merangsang produksi antibodi.


Vaksinasi penuh tercipta dua minggu selepas dos kedua bagi vaksin 2 dos atau selepas dos pertama bagi vaksin 1 dos.


Secara umumnya, vaksinasi penuh membolehkan penerimanya mengadaptasi semula kebanyakan norma-norma lama.


Dari sudut kesihatan, vaksin penuh bukan sahaja mengurangkan risiko baginya mendapat jangkitan malah sekiranya mendapat jangkitan, ia tidaklah begitu teruk.


Halaman Utama
Masjid di Jakarta

Indonesia Buat Ketetapan Tiada Mudik Lebaran Pada Tahun Ini

Friday, 16 April, 2021

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Jakarta, Kominfo - Satuan Tugas (Satgas) Penanganan Covid-19 menerbitkan Surat Edaran (SE) Nomor 13 Tahun 2021 tentang Peniadaan Mudik Hari Raya Idulfitri Tahun 1442 Hijriah dan Upaya Pengendalian Penyebaran Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Selama Bulan Suci Ramadan 1442 Hijriah.


Ketentuan yang tertuang dalam SE yang ditandatangani Ketua Satgas Doni Monardo pada tanggal 7 April 2021 ini berlaku mulai tanggal 6 hingga 17 Mei 2021.


“Surat Edaran ini berlaku efektif mulai tanggal 6 – 17 Mei 2021 dan akan ditinjau lebih lanjut sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan/atau dengan perkembangan terakhir di lapangan,” ujarnya dalam SE.


Ditegaskan Doni, pelanggaran terhadap SE ini akan dikenakan sanksi denda, sanksi sosial, kurungan dan/atau pidana sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan.


Penerbitan SE ini dilatarbelakangi adanya potensi peningkatan mobilitas masyarakat pada bulan suci Ramadan dan Hari Raya Idulfitri tahun ini baik untuk kegiatan keagamaan, keluarga, maupun pariwisata yang memiliki risiko terhadap peningkatan laju penularan Covid-19



Halaman Utama
Vaksin dan picagari

Penawar COVID-19 Masih Didambakan

27 Oktober, 2020

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Dalam tempoh 6 bulan selepas ujikaji terapeutik terbesar di dunia iaitu Solidarity Therapeutics Trial bermula, ia telah berjaya menghasilkan bukti-bukti konklusif tentang keberkesanan ubat-ubatan bagi merawat COVID-19.


Keputusan interim daripada Solidarity Therapeutics Trial kelolaan WHO itu telah menunjukkan bahawa ubat-ubat berikut: iaitu remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir dan interferon sama ada memilki sedikit saja keberkesanan atau tiada kesan langsung ke atas mortaliti 28 hari atau paras kesembuhan pesakit.


Kajian di 30 buah negara itu adalah bertujuan bagi melihat keberkesanan beberapa jenis rawatan terhadap aspek-aspek seperti mortaliti keseluruhan, bila prosedur ventilasi bermula dan jangka masa pesakit berada di hospital.


Progres yang dicapai oleh Solidarity Therapeutics Trial menunjukkan kajian antarabangsa waima dalam situasi pandemik bukanlah suatu yang mustahil untuk dilaksanakan


Seterusnya platform berskala global seperti Solidarity Trial adalah bersedia untuk menilai secara pantas mana-mana rawatan-rawatan baru yang berpotensi di 500 buah hospital yang mengambil bahagian.


Terbaru, beberapa lagi ubat antiviral, immunomodulators dan antibodi monoklonal anti-SARS COV-2 sedang dipertimbangkan untuk dinilai.


Halaman Utama
English
Ubat Ivermectin

Paediatric Hepatitis: Working Hypotheis

12 Mei 2022

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Acute Paediatric Hepatitis of Unknown Origin UK: Working hypotheses


The following hypotheses are all being actively tested by the investigations in process.


There are increased paediatric acute non-A-E hepatitis presentations due to:


1. A normal adenovirus infection, due to one of:

a. Abnormal susceptibility or host response which allows adenovirus infection to progress more frequently to hepatitis (whether direct or immunopathological), for example from lack of exposure during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

b. An exceptionally large wave of normal adenovirus infections, causing a very rare or under-recognised complication to present more frequently.

c. Abnormal susceptibility or host response to adenovirus due to priming by a prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 (including Omicron restricted) or another infection.

d. Abnormal susceptibility or host response to adenovirus due to a coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 or another infection.

e. Abnormal susceptibility or host response to adenovirus due to a toxin, drug or environmental exposure.


2. A novel variant adenovirus, with or without a contribution from a cofactor as listed above.


3. A post-infectious SARS-CoV-2 syndrome (including an Omicron restricted effect).


4. A drug, toxin or environmental exposure.


5. A novel pathogen either acting alone or as a coinfection.


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omicron   height=

First Confirmed Case of Omicron Variant Detected in the United States

2 December, 2021

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The California and San Francisco Departments of Public Health have confirmed that a recent case of COVID-19 among an individual in California was caused by the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529). The individual was a traveler who returned from South Africa on November 22, 2021. The individual had mild symptoms that are improving, is self-quarantining and has been since testing positive. All close contacts have been contacted and have tested negative.


Genomic sequencing was conducted at the University of California, San Francisco and the sequence was confirmed at CDC as being consistent with the Omicron variant. This will be the first confirmed case of COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant detected in the United States


On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified a new variant, B.1.1.529, as a Variant of Concern and named it Omicron and on November 30, 2021, the United States also classified it as a Variant of Concern. CDC has been actively monitoring and preparing for this variant, and we will continue to work diligently with other U.S. and global public health and industry partners to learn more. Despite the detection of Omicron, Delta remains the predominant strain in the United States


The recent emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) further emphasizes the importance of vaccination, boosters, and general prevention strategies needed to protect against COVID-19. Everyone 5 and older should get vaccinated and boosters are recommended for everyone 18 years and older


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Ubat Ivermectin

Merck Statement on Ivermectin use During the COVID-19 Pandemic

2 Julai, 2021

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KENILWORTH, N.J., Feb. 4, 2021 – Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today affirmed its position regarding use of ivermectin during the COVID-19 pandemic. Company scientists continue to carefully examine the findings of all available and emerging studies of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 for evidence of efficacy and safety. It is important to note that, to-date, our analysis has identified:


- No scientific basis for a potential therapeutic effect against COVID-19 from pre-clinical studies;
- No meaningful evidence for clinical activity or clinical efficacy in patients with COVID-19 disease, and;
- A concerning lack of safety data in the majority of studies.


We do not believe that the data available support the safety and efficacy of ivermectin beyond the doses and populations indicated in the regulatory agency-approved prescribing information.


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DNA repairs occurs at specific loci of the neuronal cell

Malaysia will get 1,387,200 doses of vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.

Teusday, 8 June 2021

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Malaysia received a second batch of COVID-19 vaccines on 21 May 2021, shipped via the COVAX Facility, a partnership between WHO, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, and UNICEF. This is another important step in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and supporting immunization efforts by the Government of Malaysia.


The Government of Malaysia through the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation has been working together with WHO and UNICEF to bring life-saving vaccines to Malaysia.


The 559 200 doses of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccines that arrived follow the 21 April COVAX shipment of 268 800 doses to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


In total, Malaysia has received 828,000 doses of the expected 1,387,200 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.

In total, Malaysia has received 828 000 doses of the expected 1 387 200 doses of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.


Halaman Utama
Sinovac vaccine

China Sinovac vaccine is 100% effective against severe COVID-19 infection?

Friday, 16 April 2021

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Bloomberg spoke to two experts about the vaccines, zeroing in on the Sinovac Biotech Ltd. shot, which has been the focus of a crisis in confidence after it posted efficacy levels of just above 50% in a final stage trial in Brazil -- the minimum required by leading global drug regulators.


According to Fiona Russell from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne and Paul Griffin, a professor from the University of Queensland in Brisbane:


1. For very mild disease, requiring no treatment the efficacy of Sinovac is about 50%.
2. For infections requiring some medical intervention, it’s about 84%.
3. For moderate-to-severe Covid cases, it’s 100%!


Conclusion: That’s what you expect from Covid vaccines -- higher efficacy against more severe infections and lower against milder ones. From what I can see, it looks like a very worthwhile vaccine.



Halaman Utama
Virus dilihat bawah elektron mikroskop

COVID-19: Airborne transmission

26 Julai, 2020

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Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”). WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.


Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.


To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission.


Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE). These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context.


Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.


Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice, in restaurants or in fitness classes. In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out.


However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e.g., superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.


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Pakai pelitup muka

Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19

21 Julai, 2020

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COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or raises their voice (e.g., while shouting, chanting, or singing). These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.


Recent studies show that a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (are “asymptomatic”) and that even those who eventually develop symptoms (are “pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.


To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.


Why it is important to wear a cloth face covering


Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others. Wearing a cloth face covering will help protect people around you, including those at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and workers who frequently come into close contact with other people (e.g., in stores and restaurants).


Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings. The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.


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Kuiz Baru
Kuiz-33

Imej janaan di bawah adalah menyerupai kerlipan bintang-bintang di langit. Bintang-bintang ini mengeluarkan kerlipan dalam berbagai warna (biru, putih, merah dll.) Kenyataan yang benar mengenai warna-warna bintang adalah:


Kerlipan Bintang





Last-Modified: Thursday 30 September 2021 18:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-32

Imej di bawah adalah mesin pemekat oksigen yang mampu memekatkan oksigen dalam udara di sekeliling. Sebelum gas oksigen pekat di salurkan kepada pengguna, ia akan terlebih dahulu dialirkan ke dalam bekas plastik berisi air (anak panah biru). Tujuan gas oksigen dialirkan ke dalam air adalah untuk:


Pemekat oksigen





Last-Modified: Jumaat 24 September 2021 18:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-31

Imej bawah ini menggambarkan molekul-molekul gas iaitu Nitrogen (N2), oksigen (O2), Argon (Arg), helium (He), wap air, dll. yang terdapat dalam udara ambien. Semua molekul-molekul yang bergerak secara rawak. Kenyataan yang benar tentang gas-gas berkenaan adalah:


Ar
H2O
He
CO2
O2
N2





Last-Modified: Thursday, 30 September 2021 18:00:09 GMT


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