Perlumbaan Kini Adalah Di Antara Misi Pandemik Dan Sasaran Imuniti Kelompok

Oleh Infomedikini

Pada 13 Mei 2021


Pandemik 2019 masih menular apabila virus SARS-CoV-2 berjaya mengekalkan kelicikannya.


Setakat ini COVID-19 telah berjaya menjejakkan kaki di lebih 90% wilayah dan kawasan yang mempunyai sempadan antarabangsa.


Varian, penularan dan gelombang


Kemunculan 3 varian iaitu B117, B1351, dan P1 adalah kekuatan yang diperlukan oleh pandemik untuk meneruskan momentum dalam gelombang ke-3.


Selain kepatuhan kepada SOP, vaksin adalah perisai yang disasarkan mampu mengekang gelombang yang tersedia ada.


Tatkala vaksin nampak mampu melandaikan lengkung pandemik di beberapa penjuru bumi, muncul pula varian lebih licik iaitu B1617.


Menurut Maria Van Kerkhove, Pengarah Teknikal WHO varian ini perlu diberi perhatian dan kebimbangan kerana amat mudah menular.


Justeru apakah kebimbangan yang dizahirkan oleh wakil WHO itu bermakna pandemik global ini bakal memasuki gelombang seterusnya (gelombang ke-4)?


Bebas pandemik


Meskipun penularan pandemik ini tidak mampu disekat oleh sempadan antarabangsa namun setakat ini masih ada beberapa wilayah yang tidak dapat ditembusi oleh pandemik 2019.


1 / 13
Kiribati clam farming
Kiribati: Clam farming
2 / 13
Pulau di Tonga
Tonga: Pulau Nuku
3 / 13
Man made channel
Palau: Terusan Buatan
4 / 13
Bendera Nauru
Nauru: Riadah Kesihatan
5 / 13
Tuvalu National Bank
Tuvalu: National Bank
6 / 13
Muri Lagoon
Cook Islands: Muri Lagoon
7 / 13
Amaran beruang melintas
Svalbard: Amaran beruang melintas
8 / 13
Booby Brown bird
Christmas Island
9 / 13
Jeti laut Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island: Jeti laut
10 / 13
Pantai Avatele
Niue: Pantai Avatele
11 / 13
Barge
Tokelau: Antara pengangkutan
laut yang ada
12 / 13
Airport on Cocos Island
Cocos Island: Airport
13 / 13
Bendera Nauru
Piticairn: Tepian pantai bertebing



Kiribati


Bendera Kiribati
Officially the Republic of Kiribati is an independent island nation in the central Pacific Ocean. The permanent population is over 119,000 (2020), more than half of whom live on Tarawa atoll. The state comprises 32 atolls and one raised coral island, Banaba. They have a total land area of 811 square kilometres (313 square miles) and are dispersed over 3.5 million km2 (1.4 million sq mi).


Tonga


Bendera TongaOfficially named the Kingdom of Tonga is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. The archipelago's total surface area is about 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi) scattered over 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) of the southern Pacific Ocean. As of 2016, Tonga had a population of 100,651, 70% of whom resided on the main island, Tongatapu.


Palau


Palau flagOfficially the Republic of Palau and historically Belau, Palaos or Pelew, is an island country in the western Pacific. The nation has approximately 340 islands and connects the western chain of the Caroline Islands with parts of the Federated States of Micronesia. It has a total area of 466 square kilometers (180 square miles). The most populous island is Koror. The capital Ngerulmud is located on the nearby island of Babeldaob, in Melekeok State. Palau shares maritime boundaries with international waters to the north, Micronesia to the east, Indonesia to the south, and the Philippines to the west.


Nauru


Bendera NauruOfficially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country and microstate in Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 km (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest country in the world behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest republic. Additionally, its population of 10,670 is the world's second smallest, after Vatican City.


Tuvalu


Bendera TuvaluFormerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (which belong to the Solomon Islands), northeast of Vanuatu, southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna, and north of Fiji. Tuvalu is composed of three reef islands and six atolls. They are spread out between the latitude of 5° and 10° south, and between the longitude of 176° and 180°. They lie west of the International Date Line.[4] Tuvalu has a population of 10,507 (2017 census).The total land area of the islands of Tuvalu is 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi).


Cook Islands


Bendera Cook IslandsThe Cook Islands are a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands whose total land area is 240 square kilometres (93 sq mi). The Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers 1,960,027 square kilometres (756,771 sq mi) of ocean.


Svalbard and Jan Mayen


Bendera SvalbardPreviously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the northern coast of Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet and EdgeĆøya, and the largest settlement is Longyearbyen.


Christmas Island


Bendera Christmas IslandThe Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. It is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 km (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).


Norfolk Island


Bendera Norfolk IslandNorfolk Island is an external territory of Australia located in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of Australia's Evans Head and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with the neighbouring Phillip Island and Nepean Island, the three islands collectively form the Territory of Norfolk Island. At the 2016 census, it had 1748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi). Its capital is Kingston.


Niue


Bendera NiueNiue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi) and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016. Niue is located in a triangle between Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands. It is 604 kilometers northeast of Tonga. The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia". Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands.


Tokelau


Bendera TokelauTokelau is known previously as the Union Islands, and, until 1976, known officially as the Tokelau Islands, lit. "north-northeast" is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls: Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo. They have a combined land area of 10 km2 (4 sq mi).


Cocos Islands


Bendera Cocos IslandsThe Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Cocos Islands Malay: Pulu Kokos (Keeling)) is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and relatively close to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The territory's dual name (official since the islands' incorporation into Australia in 1955) reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands.


Pitcairn Islands


Bendera Piticairn Officially the Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, is a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the sole British Overseas Territory in the Pacific Ocean. The four islands — Pitcairn proper, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno — are scattered across several hundred kilometres of ocean and have a combined land area of about 18 square miles (47 km2).


Faktor-faktor yang membolehkan pulau-pulau di lautan Pasifik dan Atlantik ini bebas pandemik adalah: kepongan lautan yang luas dan kedudukan yang terpencil dari arus tumpuan dan pergerakan global.


Cumanya apakah status bebas pandemik dapat dikekalkan atau apakah gelombang ke-4 bakal menyempurnakan misi pandemik seterusnya iaitu: "tiada wilayah yang akan terlepas dari jangkauan COVID-19"!?


Last-Modified: Friday, 14 May 2021 04:00:00 GMT

Ulasan

⬅Tatal ke kiri

Covid-19
Pandemik

⬅Tatal ke kiri


Bahasa Malaysia
EURO 2020

EURO 2020 Budapest: Hungary catat sifar kes positif

4 Julai 2021

Baca seterusnya

EURO 2020 Budapest telah berlangsung selama 23 hari dengan stadium perlawanan dipenuhi oleh puluhan ribuan penonton.


Kes positif COVID-19 harian pada 3 Julai 2021 adalah sifar!


Angka COVID-19 Hungary pada 3 Julai 2021


Inilah pertama kali Hungary mencatatkan angka sifar dalam tempoh EURO 2020 berlangsung.


Halaman Utama
Tabung oksigen

Harga Isi Ulang Oksigen di Jakarta Naik Rp 3.000 - Rp 5.000 Per Tabung

2 Julai 2021

Baca seterusnya

JAKARTA, KOMPAS.com - Harga isi ulang oksigen melonjak Rp 3.000 hingga Rp 5.000 per tabung berbagai ukuran di salah satu sentra penjualan di Setiabudi, Jakarta Selatan.


Kenaikan harga terjadi sejak dua minggu lalu, menyusul lonjakan kasus COVID-19 di Ibu Kota. "Lonjakan pembelian isi ulang oksigen ini terjadi sejak dua minggu lalu," kata pengelola depot pengisian oksigen Krisna Okta Wira di Setiabudi, Jakarta Selatan, Jumat (2/7/2021), seperti dikutip Antara.


Adapun ukuran yang paling banyak diisi ulang oksigen, lanjut dia, di antaranya tabung ukuran satu meter kubik yang kini dihargai Rp 18.000 sekali isi ulang atau naik Rp 3.000 dari harga sebelumnya Rp 15.000.


Rata-rata kenaikan untuk tabung lainnya, lanjut dia, hingga mencapai Rp 5.000 per tabung.


Untuk pengisian oksigen untuk tabung paling kecil berukuran 0,5 meter kubik dihargai Rp 10.000, tabung ukuran 1,5 meter kubik mencapai Rp 25.000.


Sedangkan pengisian oksigen untuk tabung ukuran dua meter kubik mencapai Rp 30.000 dan tiga meter kubik mencapai Rp 40.000.


"Rata-rata yang isi ulang itu warga biasa untuk kebutuhan di rumah tapi ada juga dari Puskesmas," imbuhnya. Menurut dia, pada hari biasa pembeli yang rutin mengisi ulang oksigen tidak lebih dari 100 orang per hari.


Namun, sejak dua minggu lalu jumlah pembeli melonjak menjadi sekitar 200 orang per hari.


Ini sumbernya


Halaman Utama
Calitan naso-farinks

Sedikit tentang komplikasi calitan hidung

Selasa, 29 Jun 2021

Baca seterusnya

Calitan naso-farinks dan oro-farinks dilakukan seperti dalam imej di atas bagi mengampil sampel dan seterusnya diuji sama ada sampel tadi mengandungi virus COVID-19 atau sebaliknya


Semenjak pandemik ini bermula, beratus-ratus juta kali calitan hidung dan kerongkong telah dilakukan di serata dunia dan ini adalah komplikasi yang direkodkan.


1. Perdarahan hidung (epistaksis).
2. Alat calitan terpatah dan tertinggal di dalam hidung.
3. Kecederaan yang menjurus kepada kebocoran cecair serebrospinal.
4. Dislokasi sendi temporomandibular


Memandangkan banyak ujian calitan dilakukan setiap hari di serata dunia, insiden tentunya akan bertambah. Namum secara umumnya risiko komplikasi calitan orofarinks dan nasofarinks adalah amat rendah.


Halaman Utama
Vaksin COVID-19

COVID-19: Makna vaksinasi penuh

Selasa, 8 Jun 2021

Baca seterusnya

Vaksinasi adalah proses memasukkan vaksin ke dalam tubuh.


Vaksin adalah bahan yang apabila dimasukkan ke dalam tubuh akan berupaya merangsang produksi antibodi.


Vaksinasi penuh tercipta dua minggu selepas dos kedua bagi vaksin 2 dos atau selepas dos pertama bagi vaksin 1 dos.


Secara umumnya, vaksinasi penuh membolehkan penerimanya mengadaptasi semula kebanyakan norma-norma lama.


Dari sudut kesihatan, vaksin penuh bukan sahaja mengurangkan risiko baginya mendapat jangkitan malah sekiranya mendapat jangkitan, ia tidaklah begitu teruk.


Halaman Utama
Masjid di Jakarta

Indonesia Buat Ketetapan Tiada Mudik Lebaran Pada Tahun Ini

Friday, 16 April, 2021

Baca seterusnya

Jakarta, Kominfo - Satuan Tugas (Satgas) Penanganan Covid-19 menerbitkan Surat Edaran (SE) Nomor 13 Tahun 2021 tentang Peniadaan Mudik Hari Raya Idulfitri Tahun 1442 Hijriah dan Upaya Pengendalian Penyebaran Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Selama Bulan Suci Ramadan 1442 Hijriah.


Ketentuan yang tertuang dalam SE yang ditandatangani Ketua Satgas Doni Monardo pada tanggal 7 April 2021 ini berlaku mulai tanggal 6 hingga 17 Mei 2021.


“Surat Edaran ini berlaku efektif mulai tanggal 6 – 17 Mei 2021 dan akan ditinjau lebih lanjut sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan/atau dengan perkembangan terakhir di lapangan,” ujarnya dalam SE.


Ditegaskan Doni, pelanggaran terhadap SE ini akan dikenakan sanksi denda, sanksi sosial, kurungan dan/atau pidana sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan.


Penerbitan SE ini dilatarbelakangi adanya potensi peningkatan mobilitas masyarakat pada bulan suci Ramadan dan Hari Raya Idulfitri tahun ini baik untuk kegiatan keagamaan, keluarga, maupun pariwisata yang memiliki risiko terhadap peningkatan laju penularan Covid-19



Halaman Utama
Vaksin dan picagari

Penawar COVID-19 Masih Didambakan

27 Oktober, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Dalam tempoh 6 bulan selepas ujikaji terapeutik terbesar di dunia iaitu Solidarity Therapeutics Trial bermula, ia telah berjaya menghasilkan bukti-bukti konklusif tentang keberkesanan ubat-ubatan bagi merawat COVID-19.


Keputusan interim daripada Solidarity Therapeutics Trial kelolaan WHO itu telah menunjukkan bahawa ubat-ubat berikut: iaitu remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir dan interferon sama ada memilki sedikit saja keberkesanan atau tiada kesan langsung ke atas mortaliti 28 hari atau paras kesembuhan pesakit.


Kajian di 30 buah negara itu adalah bertujuan bagi melihat keberkesanan beberapa jenis rawatan terhadap aspek-aspek seperti mortaliti keseluruhan, bila prosedur ventilasi bermula dan jangka masa pesakit berada di hospital.


Progres yang dicapai oleh Solidarity Therapeutics Trial menunjukkan kajian antarabangsa waima dalam situasi pandemik bukanlah suatu yang mustahil untuk dilaksanakan


Seterusnya platform berskala global seperti Solidarity Trial adalah bersedia untuk menilai secara pantas mana-mana rawatan-rawatan baru yang berpotensi di 500 buah hospital yang mengambil bahagian.


Terbaru, beberapa lagi ubat antiviral, immunomodulators dan antibodi monoklonal anti-SARS COV-2 sedang dipertimbangkan untuk dinilai.


Halaman Utama
English
Ubat Ivermectin

Merck Statement on Ivermectin use During the COVID-19 Pandemic

2 Julai, 2021

Baca seterusnya

KENILWORTH, N.J., Feb. 4, 2021 – Merck (NYSE: MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today affirmed its position regarding use of ivermectin during the COVID-19 pandemic. Company scientists continue to carefully examine the findings of all available and emerging studies of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 for evidence of efficacy and safety. It is important to note that, to-date, our analysis has identified:


- No scientific basis for a potential therapeutic effect against COVID-19 from pre-clinical studies;
- No meaningful evidence for clinical activity or clinical efficacy in patients with COVID-19 disease, and;
- A concerning lack of safety data in the majority of studies.


We do not believe that the data available support the safety and efficacy of ivermectin beyond the doses and populations indicated in the regulatory agency-approved prescribing information.


Halaman Utama
DNA repairs occurs at specific loci of the neuronal cell

Malaysia will get 1,387,200 doses of vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.

Teusday, 8 June 2021

Baca seterusnya

Malaysia received a second batch of COVID-19 vaccines on 21 May 2021, shipped via the COVAX Facility, a partnership between WHO, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, and UNICEF. This is another important step in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and supporting immunization efforts by the Government of Malaysia.


The Government of Malaysia through the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation has been working together with WHO and UNICEF to bring life-saving vaccines to Malaysia.


The 559 200 doses of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccines that arrived follow the 21 April COVAX shipment of 268 800 doses to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


In total, Malaysia has received 828,000 doses of the expected 1,387,200 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.

In total, Malaysia has received 828 000 doses of the expected 1 387 200 doses of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine provided by the COVAX Facility.


Halaman Utama
Sekolah di Jakarta

No school clusters detected in Jakarta this year

Thursday, 22 April 2021

Baca seterusnya

Jakarta Education Agency Head Nahdiana said there has been no report of Covid-19 transmission case during the back-to-school trial in 85 schools. The trial was started as teachers and administrative staffs in those education units had received the Covid-19 vaccines


“There is no report [of positive cases] until now,” said Nahdiana in response to the question shot by the Chairman of the Jakarta Legislative Council (DPRD) Commission E, Iman Satria, in today’s hearing, April 21, 2021.


Nahdiana’s statement cast Iman in relief. Iman was happy to hear that the trial of the so-called face-to-face school is running smoothly and no confirmed cases among students and teachers are found thus far.


Iman hoped that the condition could be maintained until the preparation of the simultaneous school reopening across the capital. “Hopefully, this can be maintained,” he said.


The Jakarta provincial government decided to hold the trial for on-site studies in 85 schools starting Wednesday, April 7. Deputy Governor Ahmad Riza Patria said on April 7 that he would open more schools if the test run is successful-Tempo.Com


Halaman Utama
Sinovac vaccine

China Sinovac vaccine is 100% effective against severe COVID-19 infection?

Friday, 16 April 2021

Baca seterusnya

Bloomberg spoke to two experts about the vaccines, zeroing in on the Sinovac Biotech Ltd. shot, which has been the focus of a crisis in confidence after it posted efficacy levels of just above 50% in a final stage trial in Brazil -- the minimum required by leading global drug regulators.


According to Fiona Russell from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne and Paul Griffin, a professor from the University of Queensland in Brisbane:


1. For very mild disease, requiring no treatment the efficacy of Sinovac is about 50%.
2. For infections requiring some medical intervention, it’s about 84%.
3. For moderate-to-severe Covid cases, it’s 100%!


Conclusion: That’s what you expect from Covid vaccines -- higher efficacy against more severe infections and lower against milder ones. From what I can see, it looks like a very worthwhile vaccine.



Halaman Utama
Virus dilihat bawah elektron mikroskop

COVID-19: Airborne transmission

26 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”). WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.


Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.


To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission.


Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE). These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context.


Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.


Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice, in restaurants or in fitness classes. In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out.


However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e.g., superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.


Halaman Utama
Pakai pelitup muka

Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19

21 Julai, 2020

Baca seterusnya

COVID-19 spreads mainly from person to person through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or raises their voice (e.g., while shouting, chanting, or singing). These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.


Recent studies show that a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (are “asymptomatic”) and that even those who eventually develop symptoms (are “pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.


To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.


Why it is important to wear a cloth face covering


Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others. Wearing a cloth face covering will help protect people around you, including those at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 and workers who frequently come into close contact with other people (e.g., in stores and restaurants).


Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings. The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.


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Kuiz Baru
Kuiz-27

Vaksin COVID-19

Location of DNA repair inside the neuron cells


Vaksin COVID-19 berguna dalam perkara-perkara berikut kecuali:






Last-Modified: Monday, 29 March 2021 21:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-26

mRNA


Imej mRNA
Sumber: Curevac


Berikut adalah penyataan yang salah mengenai vaksin mRNA COVID-19:






Last-Modified: Monday, 29 March 2021 21:00:09 GMT

Kuiz-25

Video di bawah ini adalah gambaran yang acap kali dipamerkan oleh layout semasa meluncuri laman sesawang.

Kenyataan yang betul tentang video tersebut adalah:





Last-Modified: Wednesday, 7 April 2021 23:00:09 GMT


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